One of the most fascinating
characters in American history was undoubtedly President Abraham Lincoln. In
addition to his many contributions to our history, connections between
Lincoln and the supernatural were maintained throughout his life, and some say
beyond it. Much has been made of Lincolnís prophetic dreams and of his belief
in the spirit world and of course, of the hauntings which are said to be
connected to his home in Springfield and his mysterious tomb. Stories have
also been told of his belief in the spirit world and for our purposes here,
that is what I wish to focus on.
really take place in the Lincoln White House? Did Lincoln really believe in
Spiritualism? And if so, what event occurred that could have caused him to
want to make contact with the dead?
Lincoln in Illinois
Abraham Lincoln was
always a melancholy person. The death of his mother when he was still a
child, hard labor to make an existence for himself in the wilderness and
his struggle for an education, all combined to make him a serious man,
even when he was making a joke. The Civil War caused him great sorrow and
the heavy losses on both sides filled him with sadness. Lincoln paid
obsessive detail to everything about the war and by 1864, portraits of him
show a face etched with lines. He slept very little in those years and
during the five years he lived in the White House, he spent less than one
month away from work. His only escape was afforded him by the theater, a
late night buggy ride or from his books.
Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky in 1809. His father,
Thomas Lincoln, had married Nancy Hanks, a tall, pretty, uneducated girl,
three years before and they had built a log cabin at a place called Sinking
Springs Farm. Later, the Lincoln family pulled up stakes and moved across the
Ohio River to Indiana, where they settled on Little Pigeon Creek. In
1818, Lincolnís life changed abruptly when the family was struck by a terrible
frontier disease dubbed "milk sickness". Tom and Betsy Sparrow, close friends
of the Lincoln family, died first, while Nancy Lincoln faithfully nursed them
to their last hours. Then, Nancy too was struck down with the disease and
followed her friends to their graves. Abraham helped to fashion his motherís
coffin with his own hands and then placed her in the ground. It was later said
that he held his head in his hands and wept for hours. At that point, his
father and sister forgotten, Lincoln later said that he felt completely alone
in the world.
In 1820. the
Lincoln's moved to Illinois. Thomas had re-married and for a time, the
family lived in a small cabin outside of Decatur. The younger Lincoln
later moved to New Salem and Springfield after working on the riverboats
and serving in the military during the Black Hawk War. He began
working in a law practice and found that he had a gift for politics and
oration. He was soon a popular young man about town. In 1839, Lincoln met
a young woman named Mary Todd and after a rocky courtship, they were
married in 1842.
for travel and the law caused his marriage to suffer badly in those early
years. At that point in his career, he was active in court cases all over
Illinois and was constantly away from home. Mary gave birth to a son,
Robert, and their second son, Eddie, was born in 1846 but only lived to
the age of four. Willie followed in 1850, not long after the death of his
brother, and Thomas "Tad" Lincoln was born in 1853.
Mary Todd Lincoln around 1846
Lincoln served a term in Congress in the late 1840ís, but
his law practice kept him too busy to consider much of a political career. He
had always been opposed to the further spread of slavery in the country and
was contented that the Missouri Compromise had outlawed slavery further west,
where Americaís future would be built. But in 1854, a congressional act
provoked by Lincolnís long-time personal and political rival, Stephen Douglas,
threatened to allow slavery in the territories. Lincolnís anger at this got
the best of him and he made the decision to return to politics.
Lincolnís Prophetic Vision
In the summer of 1854, Lincoln
decided to campaign for a seat in the Illinois State Assembly. He easily won
the position, but then quickly resigned. What he really wanted was a seat in
the US Senate, where he believed he could really make a difference for his
country. In February 1855, he sought but failed to get the coveted seat.
Things started to change in early 1856 however, as a new political party was
created called the Republican Party. In these years, passions were beginning
to ignite in the nation and dire predictions began to be made about the
possibilities of secession and Civil War. In Illinois, Republicans
nominated Lincoln to run against Stephen Douglas for a seat in the Senate in
On July 24, Lincoln proposed that the two opponents meet in
a series of debates before audiences all over the state. Douglas agreed and
the two began a series of appearances that have become legend in Illinois for
their volatile content. "The prairies are on fire," wrote one reporter, after
witnessing a clash between Lincoln and Douglas. The debates were bitter and
powerful between the two long-time rivals. Lincoln argued that slavery must be
abolished, while Douglas insisted that it could be contained and allowed to
flourish in the South, as long as the states there wished it. The final debate
was held in Alton and the story was reported all over the country in
Finally, in November, word reached Lincoln that he had lost
the race for the Senate seat. Surprisingly, this loss was the best thing that
could have happened to him. Wise political analysts, on both sides, had
watched this race very closely and had seen the way the debates had captured
the attention of the entire country. Soon, word among the Republicans began to
favor Lincoln as their choice for President in 1860.
Lincoln began to travel all over the country, backed by the
Illinois Republican contingent, making his name known and becoming a
recognizable entity. On May 16, 1860, the Republican National Convention
opened in Chicago and ended with a presidential nomination for Lincoln.
The city of Springfield had a carnival-like atmosphere about it that summer,
highlighted with a Republican rally at the fairgrounds. The parade took more
than eight hours to pass the Lincoln home and ended with a picnic, where tubs
of lemonade and whole cooked steers awaited the revelers.
Election Day in the city dawned with rousing blasts from a
cannon, with music and contagious excitement. Lincoln spent the day and
evening with friends at a telegraph office. By midnight, it was clear that he
had been elected President of the United States. A late night dinner was held
in his honor and then he returned to the office for more news. Guns fired in
celebration throughout the night. Lincoln may have won the day, but he fared
poorly in the popular vote. He had soundly defeated his closest opponent in
the Electoral College, but had won just forty percent of the vote among the
people. He had become a minority president with no support at all in the
Lincoln as he would have looked around the time of his vision in
managed to return home in the early morning hours although news of victory
and telegrams of congratulations were still being wired to his office. He
went into his bedroom for some much-needed rest and collapsed onto a
settee. Near the couch was a large bureau with a mirror on it and Lincoln
started for a moment at his reflection in the glass. His face appeared
angular, thin and tired. Several of his friends suggested that he grow a
beard, which would hide the narrowness of his face and give him a more
"presidential" appearance. Lincoln pondered this for a moment and then
experienced what many would term a "vision"... and odd vision that Lincoln
would later believe had prophetic meaning.
He saw that in the mirror, his face appeared to have two
separate, yet distinct, images. The tip of one nose was about three inches
away from the other one. The vision vanished but appeared again a few moments
later. It was clearer this time and Lincoln realized that one of the faces was
actually much paler than the other was, almost with the coloring of death. The
vision disappeared again and Lincoln dismissed the whole thing to the
excitement of the hour and his lack of sleep.
Later on that evening, he told Mary of the strange vision
and attempted to conjure it up again in the days that followed. The faces
always returned to him and while Mary never saw it, she believed her husband
when he said he did. She also believed she knew the significance of the
vision. The healthy face was her husbandís "real" face and indicated that he
would serve his first term as president. The pale, ghostly image of the second
face however was a sign that he would be elected to a second term -- but would
not live to see its conclusion.
Lincoln apparently dismissed the whole thing as a
hallucination, or an imperfection in the glass, or so he said publicly. Later,
that strange vision would come back to haunt him during the turbulent days of
the war. It was not Lincolnís only brush with prophecy either. One day,
shortly before the election, he spoke to some friends as they were discussing
the possibilities of Civil War. "Gentlemen," he said to them, "you may be
surprised and think it strange, but when the doctor here was describing a war,
I distinctly saw myself, in second sight, bearing an important part in that
Lincoln & the War
Lincoln was soon sworn
in as President and began one of the most troubled periods of American
history. The great loss of life and the bitter turmoil of the war took their
toll on him. His personality changed and he became more bitter and dark. He
became a sad, gloomy leader who was prone to severe depression. It was as if
the weight of the entire nation had fallen on his shoulders.
Documents of the Union War Department contain one occasion
when Lincoln burst into the telegraph office of the department late one night.
He had visited earlier, looking for the latest news, but when he came back, he
was in a panic. He ordered the operator to get a line through to the Union
commanders. He was convinced that Confederate soldiers were just about to cut
through the Federal lines. The telegraph operator asked where he had obtained
such information and Lincoln reportedly answered, "My god, man! I saw it".
took a terrible toll on President Lincoln but there is no doubt that the
most crippling blow he suffered in the White House was the death of his
son, Willie, in 1862. The boy had been born in Springfield in 1850,
shortly after the funeral of the Lincolnís second son, Eddie. Willie was
much like his father and probably because of this, was the special
favorite among his much-loved sons. William Wallace Lincoln, named for a
family doctor in Springfield, was a quiet, thoughtful boy who excelled at
reading and education. His brother Tad was just the opposite and could not
read or write by age 12, while Willie was beyond the basics by 8. He had a
wonderful memory and could recite long passages from the Bible with ease.
He often told his parents that he was going to be a minister when he grew
tragic figure of Willie Lincoln
Lincoln and Mary grieved deeply over Willieís death.
Lincoln was sick at heart over Willieís death and it was probably the most
intense personal crisis in his life. Some historians have even called it the
greatest blow he ever suffered. Even Confederate President Jefferson Davis
expressed condolences over the boyís death.
Lincoln did not fare well in the days that followed the
boy's death. Willie had been embalmed to make the trip back to Springfield and
be buried beside his brother, but Lincoln changed his mind about that at the
last minute. He accepted an offer made to him by a friend, William Thomas
Carroll, to place the body of Willie in one of the crypts in the Carroll
family tomb. This would be until Lincoln retired from the presidency and
returned to live in Springfield himself. He could not bear the idea of having
Willie so far away from him just yet. In fact, Lincoln returned to the
cemetery the next day to watch the body as it was moved from the cemetery
chapel to the crypt itself. Word got out that Lincoln returned to the tomb on
two occasions and had Willieís coffin opened. The doctor had embalmed Willie
so perfectly that he everyone said he just seemed to be sleeping. The
President claimed that he was forced to look upon his boyís face just one last
After the funeral, Lincoln tried to go on about his work,
but his spirit had been crushed by Willieís death. One week after the funeral,
he closed himself up in his office all day and wept. It has often been said
that Lincoln was on the verge of suicide at this point, but none can say for
sure. He did withdraw even further into himself though and he began to look
more closely at the spiritual matters that had interested him for so long.
Lincoln & The Spiritualists
Although many Lincoln
scholars say otherwise, it is more than possible that Abraham Lincoln didnít
just believe in the supernatural, but that he actually participated in it.
Many have scoffed and said that Lincoln had no time for ghosts and spirits,
but there are others who say that he actually attended sťances that were held
in the White House. Whether he accepted the movement or not, it is a fact that
many Spiritualists were often guests there. Several of them were even said to
have given him warnings about the dark shadows that hung over his life.
Of course, Lincoln himself was convinced that he was doomed
and adopted a very fatalistic attitude during his presidency, especially after
Willieís death. His friends stated that Lincoln would often watch the door
while he worked, as if expecting the boy to run through it and give his father
a hug, as he often did in life. Lincoln also began to speak of how Willieís
spirit remained with him and how his presence was often felt in his home and
office. Some mediums theorized that Lincolnís obsession with the boyís death
may have caused Willieís spirit to linger behind, refusing, for his fatherís
sake, to pass on to the other side.
Regardless of how he felt about Willieís spirit, Lincoln
publicly avoided connections to the Washington spiritualists, so much of what
is written about his contact with them comes through accounts and diaries
written by friends and acquaintances.
While Lincoln avoided the spiritualists in public, Mary
embraced them openly. She had been quick to turn to contact with the other
side for comfort after Willieís death. Once he was gone, Mary never again
entered the White House guest room where he died or the room in which the
funeral viewing was held. Some historians claim that this was the beginning of
Maryís mental instability, but not because of the mediums, because of her
fervent grief instead. The obsession over Spiritualism was just one of the
symptoms, but none could ignore the fact that her headaches, mood swings and
bursts of irrational temper were growing worse.
Mary began meeting with a number of different Spiritualists
and invited many to the White House, as each claimed to be able to "lift the
thin veil" and allow Mary to communicate with Willie. Maryís closest
spiritualist companion, and one of whom there is some record that Lincoln also
met with, was Nettie Colburn Maynard. Many are familiar with a tale told about
a sťance held by Nettie Maynard in 1863 where a grand piano levitated. The
medium was playing the instrument when it began to rise off the floor. Lincoln
and Colonel Simon Kase were both present and it is said that both men climbed
onto the piano, only to have it jump and shake so hard that they climbed down.
It is recorded that Lincoln would later refer to the levitation as proof of an
Rumors spread that Lincoln had an interest in the
spirit world. In England, a piece of sheet music was published which
portrayed him holding a candle while violins and tambourines flew about
his head. The piece of music was called The Dark Sťance Polka and
the caption below the illustration of the president read "Abraham Lincoln
and the Spiritualists".
It was also rumored that Lincoln consulted with these
mediums and clairvoyants to obtain information about future events in the
war. He found that sometimes they gave him information about matters as
mundane as Confederate troop movements -- information that sometimes
matched his own precognitive visions.
Illustrations from a book in my collection called "Was
Lincoln a Spiritualist?", which was written by medium Nettie Colburn
During a sťance that was supposed to have been held at the
home of a Mrs. Laurie in February 1863, a spirit come through Nettie Maynard
who identified himself as Dr. Bamford. Lincoln was allegedly in attendance at
this sťance and listened as the spirit described the critical conditions of
the Federal Army at the front lines. Lincoln replied that the spirit seemed to
understand the situation and asked what he would do to remedy it. The spirit
answered that he did -- but only if Lincoln had the courage to go through with
it. Lincoln said that he did and asked for assistance.
The spirit told Lincoln that he should make an informal
visit to the battle front, accompanied by Mrs. Lincoln, and that he should
mingle with the men and hear their grievances and stories. This, said the
spirit, would unite the men behind him. Lincoln followed his advice and
managed to rally the troops behind the cause. By July of that year, the Union
was dominating on both the western and eastern fronts with victories in
Vicksburg and Gettysburg. The following of the spirit's advice was credited by
many for beginning the turning point of the war.
The Foreshadowing of Doom
Despite these somewhat apocryphal stories, there is little doubt that Lincoln
believed a dark cloud hung over his head. The constant threats of death and
violence that he received kept he and his bodyguards on edge at all times. It
is also believed that some of his spiritualist friends felt the end was near.
During a session that he was said to have had with Nettie Maynard, she
allegedly told him that "the shadows others have told of still hang over you."
Lincoln told her that he received letters from spiritualists all over the
country that warned him of impending doom. When she got ready to depart, the
president insisted that she come and visit he and Mary the following autumn.
"I shall come, of course," Nettie answered, "that is... if you are still among
Perhaps the most famous supernatural incident connected to
Lincoln would be his last prophetic dream of the assassination.
One of Lincolnís old friends from Illinois was a lawyer
with whom he had ridden the legal circuit named Ward Hill Lamon. Lincoln had
appointed him to a security position in the White House and he worried
constantly over Lincolnís seeming indifference to threats and warnings of
death. Lamon often resigned his position because his friend did not take the
danger seriously. Lincoln always convinced him to stay on, promising to be
more careful.... as he vanished out of the White House at night, or attended
the theater without protection.
Lamon became obsessed with watching over Lincoln and many
believe that the president would not have been killed at Fordís Theater had
Lamon been on duty that night. As it turned out, the security chief happened
to be in Richmond, Virginia, on an errand for the president, when disaster
struck. He would never forgive himself for what happened -- especially since
he believed that he had a forewarning of the event, from Lincoln himself.
Years later, Lamon would remember that Lincoln had always
been haunted by the strange vision that he experienced in the mirror in 1860.
Several years after that, it was to Lamon and Mary Lincoln to whom the
president would recount an eerie dream of death, just shortly before his
"About ten days ago, I retired late. I soon began to
dream. There seemed to be a death-like stillness about me. Then I heard
subdued sobs, as if a number of people were weeping. I thought I left my bed
and wandered downstairs. There the silence was broken by the same pitiful
sobbing, but the mourners were invisible. I went from room to room; no
living person was in sight, but the same mournful sounds of distress met me
as I passed along.
"It was light in all the rooms; every object was
familiar to me, but where were all the people who were grieving as if their
hearts would break? I was puzzled and alarmed. What could be the meaning of
all this? Determined to find the cause of a state of things so mysterious
and so shocking, I kept on until I arrived at the East Room, which I
entered. Before me was a catafalque, on which rested a corpse wrapped in
funeral vestments. Around it were stationed soldiers who were acting as
guards; and there was a throng of people, some gazing mournfully upon the
corpse, whose face was covered, others weeping pitifully.
" ĎWho is dead in the White House?í, I demanded of one
of the soldiers.
" ĎThe Presidentí, was his answer, ĎHe was killed by
"Then came a loud burst of grief from the crowd, which
awoke me from my dream. I slept no more that night; and although it was only
a dream, I have been strangely annoyed by it ever since."
Lincoln was murdered just a few days later and his body was
displayed in the East Room of the White House. Mary would recall this dream of
her husbandís quite vividly in the days that followed. It was said that her
first coherent word after the assassination was a muttered statement about his
dream being prophetic.
On April 14, 1865, a few days after the horrifying
dream and on the night he was to attend Fordís Theater, Lincoln called a
meeting of his cabinet. Edwin Stanton, Lincolnís Secretary of War, arrived
twenty minutes late and the meeting began without him. As Stanton and
Attorney General James Speed were leaving the meeting, Stanton commented
to him that he was pleased about how much work was accomplished.
"But you were not here at the beginning", Speed said.
"When we entered the council chamber, we found the president seated at the
top of the table, with his face buried in his hands. Presently, he raised
it and we saw that he looked grave and worn".
before long, you will have important news", the President told them. The
Cabinet members were anxious to hear what news Lincoln spoke of, but he
refused to tell them anything further.
"I have heard nothing, but you will hear tomorrow, " he
said, and then continued, "I have had a dream. I have dreamed three times
before; once before the Battle of Bull Run; once on another occasion; and
again last night. I am in a boat, alone on a boundless ocean. I have no oars,
no rudder, I am helpless. I drift!"
That evening, while attending a performance of a play
called Our American Cousin at Fordís Theater, Lincoln was killed by an
assassin named John Wilkes Booth. He died the next morning, April 15, the
anniversary of the southern assault on Fort Sumter, the event which officially
started the Civil War.
Lincoln spoke of death and prophecies to other members
of his staff also, like Colonel William H. Crook, a member of the White
House security team and one of Lincolnís personal bodyguards. Crook took
his task seriously, often staying awake at night and sitting outside
Lincolnís bedroom while the president slept. Crook even refused to read a
newspaper while on duty so that he would be ready should an emergency
Crook was on duty the evening of April 14 and that same
afternoon, Lincoln spoke to him about the strange dreams that he had been
having. Crook pleaded with the president not to go to the theater that
night, but Lincoln dismissed his concerns, explaining that he had promised
Mary they would go and that he needed a night away from the problems of
the country. Crook then asked to accompany the president, but Lincoln
again refused, insisting that Crook could not work around the clock.
Lincoln had a
habit of bidding Crook a "good night" each evening as he left the office
and went to his bedroom. On that fateful day, according to Crook, Lincoln
paused as he left for the theater and turned to the bodyguard. "Good-bye,
Crook," he said significantly.
"It was the first time that he neglected to say ĎGood Nightí to me", Crook
would later recall. "And it was the only time that he ever said ĎGood-byeí. I
thought of it at that moment and, a few hours later, when the news flashed
over Washington that he had been shot, his last words were so burned into my
being that they can never be forgotten."
© Copyright 2003
-2008 by Troy Taylor. All Rights Reserved.